Direct indirect dating archaeology


The many figures of the Great Gallery are arranged along the nearly 100-m length of a sandstone alcove, anchored by the distinctive “Holy Ghost and his attendants” (see Fig. Barrier Canyon rock art is commonly interpreted as shamanistic (20, 21), although this is contested (22). In the San Juan River drainage to the southwest, there are several Basketmaker II (early farmers, 1500 B. On the other hand, as BCS rock art has been increasingly documented, variability in the style has increased, with Cole (24) identifying seven variants.Similarity to other neighboring, potentially contemporaneous, styles most notably includes the Esplanade style of Grand Canyon (ref. Panels are often located in prominent view along the walls of major canyons and generally afforded exclusive locations where superposition by later styles was avoided.Rock art is a record with the potential to provide unique insight into the dynamics and evolution of culture, but it generally lacks stratigraphic or chronologic context.Interpretation of the origin and meaning of rock art is indirect at best, or simply speculative.Among the latest applications of OSL are techniques dating the outer surfaces of rock clasts that have become shielded from light, including those with archaeological context (12–15).

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Results provide a maximum possible age, a minimum age, and an exposure time window for the creation of the Great Gallery panel, respectively.Barrier Canyon-style (BCS) pictographs of the Colorado Plateau are among the most debated examples; hypotheses about its age span the entire Holocene epoch and previous attempts at direct radiocarbon dating have failed.We provide multiple age constraints through the use of cross-cutting relations and new and broadly applicable approaches in optically stimulated luminescence dating at the Great Gallery panel, the type section of BCS art in Canyonlands National Park, southeastern Utah.30) in the Colorado Plateau (CP) of the western US location of the Pecos River (PR) Archaic style is marked on the Location of the Great Gallery study site near the geographic center of the region of BCS rock art (tinted in red and modified from ref. Although late Archaic archaeological sites also have been used as evidence for the age of nearby BCS panels (19), sites from post-Archaic cultures are also common across the entire geographic range of the BCS.